Technology

Longer Number WiFi Signal Receiver + Antenna + Router Kit

long distance router Receivers – what exactly are they? Just what do they do?

A range that is long receiver will allow you to always stay connected to the world of information wherever you go by increasing the coverage of public hotspots. Our splashproof and waterproof versions of long range WiFi receivers are basically wireless signal grabbers. They consist of a fully incorporated WiFi antenna, radio, and router to produce hassle-free internet reception in your cabin, RV, watercraft, or anywhere else from up to 7 kilometers away.

So how exactly does the Wi-Fi Antenna Receiver Work?

Installation Options of Longer Range Wi-Fi Signal Receiver Antenna

Merely connect the unit to any standard WiFi router and access internet directly wirelessly or through a LAN. The network can easily be managed with a web browser through any unit, and never having to install any pc software.

Principle of Operation

long distance router

 

The power that is high WiFi receiver will help enhance the range of connectivity between any device and a WiFi hotspot. This really is ideal if you want to hook up to a WiFi signal which are out of range for your phone or computer while you are on a boat, leisure car or campsite.

The product’s omnidirectional antenna can be used to communicate to, and through the Wi-Fi hotspot that you hook up to. Just like just about any antenna, this antenna needs a clear type of sight towards the hotspot for reception that is best.

The long range WiFi receiver can be used in two different modes. In the first mode, the device is connected to any standard wireless router or wireless access point to create a WiFi hotspot to provide wireless internet access to ant mobile device including phones, tablets, or laptops.

With the second option, the long range WiFi receiver is connected directly to a laptop through its Ethernet port. This option will however only allow the laptop to have access that is internet.

Wi-Fi Signal Antenna Receiver Models.

Our completely integrated range that is long signal antenna receiver with modem is available in two different models. While the mode of operation and the technical specifications of the two models are identical, the  level of protection against moisture and dust is significantly diffent.

Model WIFI-BOOSTER-1 is proof that is splash set up correctly.

Model long distance router which is considered heavy-duty has IPX5 water proof protection when set up precisely.

What exactly is IPX5 water proof security?

IPX5 is a waterproof standard that is a higher amount of protection than simply proof that is splash. The International Protection Marking or Ingress Protection Marking (IP), classifies and rates the degree of protection that is provided against the intrusion of dust, accidental contact, and water. The level of protection is achieved through a combination of mechanical casings and enclosures that are electrical by the Overseas Electrotechnical Commission.

IPX5 indicates security against water jets. The rating states that water projected by a 6.3 mm nozzle contrary to the enclosure from any way shall haven’t any effects that are harmful.

Options that come with Wi-Fi Signal Receiver/ Booster Kits:

  •     28 dBm receiver.
  •     Works together normal wireless router.
  •     Integrated router.
  •     Fully plug and play.
  •     Power over Ethernet (PoE).
  •     Manage unit easily on any device with an internet browser.
  •     Web-based device administration.

Benefits for Wi-Fi Signal Booster/ Receiver Kits:

  •     Long range Wi-Fi reception on land or water.
  •     An easy task to create local Wi-Fi hotspot with any standard router that is wireless.
  •     Connect directly to your computer through an Ethernet cable.
  •     Simple, intuitive set-up and procedure. No computer software installation required.
  •     Single cable for power and data. No power consumed from connected unit.
  •     Handle device easily on any unit with an browser that is internet.
  •     Web-based unit administration.
  •     Are permanently set up.

Technical Specifications of Long-Range Wi-Fi Signal Receiver/ Booster + Antenna + Router Kit:

Frequency and Wireless Standards: 2.4GHz, 802.11 b/g/n

Broadcast energy: Up to 28 dBm

Antenna Gain: 5 dB

Number: As Much As 7 Miles

Throughput: 100+ Mbps

Wire: 25 ft. (7.62 meters) Ethernet cable

Connectors: N-Female (Antenna), Ethernet (Device)

Power Supply: 12VDC & 110/220VAC

Power Consumption: 600mA at Max 12VDC

Wireless Approvals: FCC Role 15.247, IC RS210, CE

RoHS Compliant: Yes

Dimensions: 19.5 inches x 3.1 inches x 1.5 ins (49.53 cm x 7.87 cm x 3.81 cm)

Kit Weight: 38.8 oz (1099.9 grms)

FCC ID (United States Of America): SWX-M2B

Installing of Long-Range Wi-Fi Signal Booster/ Receiver + Antenna + Router Kit:

The long range WiFi receiver comes detailed with the following components to create installation simple and easy:

  •     Wi-Fi Antenna.
  •     L-Bracket.
  •     Hex-nut.
  •     U-Bolts x2.
  •     Clamping Bracket x2.
  •     Flat Washer x4.
  •     Spring Washer x4.
  •     Nut x4.
  •     Wi-Fi Radio.
  •     Coupling Ring (attached to the radio).
  •     End cap.
  •     Rubber Grommet.
  •     Energy injector.
  •     Ethernet cable.
  •     AC power.
  •     DC power cord.

 

Mounting Options.

All of the hardware required to mount the range that is long receiver in three different positions happens to be supplied:

    Horizontal rail: Assemble the U-bolts and brackets vertically.

    Straight post: Square bolt-hole pattern on L-bracket enables U-bolts to be assembled horizontally to allow mounting on a post that is vertical.

    Flat Vertical surface: Mounting on an appartment surface that is vertical be done through screwing the L-bracket directly on the mounting area utilizing screws (perhaps not included) to match the ¼” (6.35mm) mounting holes.

These devices should be mounted in always such a way that the antenna points vertically upward and is in clear line of sight with the transmitting Wi-Fi hotspot. Avoid interference that is possible mount the device far from other transmitters.

Summary

A long range WiFi signal receiver will allow you to always stay connected to the world of information wherever you go by increasing the coverage of public wifi hotspots. Our splashproof and waterproof long range Wi-Fi receiver is made of a completely integrated WiFi antenna & router to attract signals up to 7 miles away.

 

Longer Range long distance router exactly what are they? Exactly what do they are doing?

A long distance router receiver will allow you to always stay connected to the world of information wherever you go by increasing the coverage of public hotspots. Our splashproof and waterproof versions of long range WiFi receivers are basically signal that is wireless. They consist of a completely incorporated WiFi antenna, radio, and router to offer hassle-free internet reception in your cabin, RV, boat, or anywhere else from up to 7 kilometers away.

How does the Wi-Fi Antenna Receiver Work?

long distance router

Installation Options of Long Range Wi-Fi Signal Receiver Antenna

Simply connect the unit to virtually any WiFi that is standard router access internet directly wirelessly or through a LAN. The network can easily be managed with a web browser through any device, without having to install any pc software.

Principle of Operation.

The power that is high WiFi receiver will help enhance the array of connectivity between any unit and a WiFi hotspot. This really is perfect if you want to connect to a WiFi sign that is normally away from range for the phone or computer while you’re on a boat, recreational automobile or campsite.

These devices’s omnidirectional antenna can be used to communicate to, and through the Wi-Fi hotspot that you connect with. Exactly like virtually any antenna, this antenna needs a clear line of sight to the hotspot for reception that is best.

The long range WiFi receiver can be used in two different modes. The device is connected to any standard wireless router or wireless access point to create a WiFi hotspot to provide wireless internet access to ant mobile device including phones, tablets, or laptops in the first mode.

The long range WiFi receiver is connected directly to a laptop through its Ethernet port with the second option. This option will however only allow the laptop to have internet access.

Wi-Fi Signal Antenna Receiver Versions.

Our completely incorporated range that is long signal antenna receiver with modem is available in two different models. While the mode of operation and the technical specifications of the two models are identical, the known amount of protection against moisture and dust is significantly diffent.

Model WIFI-BOOSTER-1 is splash proof when set up precisely

Model WIFI-BOOSTER-2 that is considered heavy-duty has IPX5 water evidence security whenever installed precisely.

Precisely what is IPX5 water evidence security?

IPX5 is a waterproof standard which can be a much higher amount of protection than simply proof that is splash. The International Protection Marking or Ingress Protection Marking (IP), classifies and rates the degree of protection that is provided against the intrusion of dust, accidental contact, and water. The level of protection is achieved through a combination of mechanical casings and electrical enclosures published by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

IPX5 indicates protection against water jets. The rating states that water projected by a 6.3 mm nozzle against the enclosure from any way shall do not have harmful effects.

Top features of Wi-Fi Signal Receiver/ Booster Kits:

  •     28 dBm receiver.
  •     Works with normal wireless router.
  •     Built-in router.
  •     Fully plug and play.
  •     Energy over Ethernet (PoE).
  •     Handle device easily on any device with an browser that is internet.
  •     Web-based device administration.

Benefits for Wi-Fi Signal Booster/ Receiver Kits:

  •     Long range Wi-Fi reception on water or land.
  •     Simple to create local Wi-Fi hotspot with any standard router that is wireless.
  •     Connect straight to your pc through an Ethernet cable.
  •     Simple, intuitive set-up and procedure. No computer software installation required.
  •     Solitary cable for energy and data. No energy consumed from connected device.
  •     Handle unit easily on any device with an browser that is internet.
  •     Web-based unit management.
  •     Is completely installed.

Technical Specifications of Long-Range Wi-Fi Signal Receiver/ Booster + Antenna + Router Kit:

  • Frequency and standards that are wireless 2.4GHz, 802.11 b/g/n
  • Radio energy: Up to 28 dBm
  • Antenna Gain: 5 dB
  • Range: Up to 7 Miles
  • Throughput: 100+ Mbps
  • Wire: 25 ft. (7.62 meters) Ethernet cable
  • Connectors: N-Female (Antenna), Ethernet (Unit)
  • Power: 12VDC & 110/220VAC
  • Power Consumption: 600mA at Max 12VDC
  • Cordless Approvals: FCC Role 15.247, IC RS210, CE
  • RoHS Compliant: Yes
  • Proportions: 19.5 ins x 3.1 inches x 1.5 inches (49.53 cm x 7.87 cm x 3.81 cm)
  • Kit body weight: 38.8 oz (1099.9 grms)
  • FCC ID (USA): SWX-M2

Installing of Long-Range Wi-Fi Signal Booster/ Receiver + Antenna + Router Kit:

The range that is long receiver comes filled with the following parts to create installation easy and simple:

  •     Wi-Fi Antenna.
  •     L-Bracket.
  •     Hex-nut.
  •     U-Bolts x2.
  •     Clamping Bracket x2.
  •     Flat Washer x4.
  •     Spring Washer x4.
  •     Nut x4.
  •     Wi-Fi Radio.
  •     Coupling Ring (attached towards the radio).
  •     End cap.
  •     Rubber Grommet.
  •     Energy injector.
  •     Ethernet cable.
  •     AC power supply.
  •     DC power cable.

Mounting Options

Most of the hardware necessary to mount the long range WiFi receiver in three different positions is supplied:

    Horizontal rail: Assemble the U-bolts and brackets vertically.

    Straight post: Square bolt-hole pattern on L-bracket enables U-bolts to be assembled horizontally allowing mounting on a vertical post.

    Flat Vertical surface: Mounting on a set surface that is vertical be done through screwing the L-bracket straight onto the mounting surface utilizing screws (not included) to complement the ¼” (6.35mm) mounting holes.

The device should be mounted in always such a way that the antenna points vertically upward and is in clear line of sight with the transmitting Wi-Fi hotspot. Avoid possible interference by mount the device away from other transmitters.

Conclusion

A long range WiFi signal receiver will allow you to always stay connected to the world of information wherever you go by increasing the coverage of public wifi hotspots. Our splashproof and waterproof long range Wi-Fi receiver is comprised of a completely integrated WiFi antenna & router to attract signals up to 7 kilometers away.

 

The growth of short range wireless systems, specially Bluetooth and wireless area that is local (WLAN) has captured the industry’s imagination, if not the market that was initially predicted. Bluetooth technology originated in Europe, with early research and development driven by European-based organizations. In this special supplement Microwave Journal reviews current European activity, worldwide expansion and globally competing technologies to discover whether going wireless comes with strings connected.
No cables — what an proposition that is attractive! Consider the savings in cabling costs and flexibility offered if an office’s computers were served by a WLAN. Just imagine being able to eliminate the tangled mass of wires currently required to connect a PC, not only to your community, but additionally to its peripherals such as for example the keyboard, mouse and printer. Meanwhile, the flexibility of cellular and cordless technology has promoted a few ideas for a generic short range wireless access solution for different products.
They are all desirable aims but the fascination with and development of brief range wireless data networking have not simply been prompted by the requirement to office that is disentangle from trailing wires. The real impetus has originate from the desire and expectation of people and companies in order to get into data and information almost anytime, anywhere, anyplace. Laptop-based users and broadband access in homes are more of the elements converging to drive ideas of a short range wireless access solution as well. Ally that with the prospect of vast numbers of cell phones becoming Internet enabled with users wanting to link up to laptops, headsets, hands-free kits and LAN access points, and a lucrative market is guaranteed so long as the technology can be acquired to implement it.

With such a big and market that is untapped has been no shortage of contenders vying to provide that technology. This article looks at two of the leading contenders, Bluetooth and WLANs. Issues covered include how Bluetooth has built on its European origins and early development to capitalize on Europe’s Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) to enable it and synergize with it, together with the opportunities that 3G could offer. By mapping WLAN development and deployment that is global is regarded as both a competing technology and growth market in its right.
BLUETOOTH: AN OVERVIEW
Since Ericsson originally devised the technology in 1994 Bluetooth has grabbed the imagination and most of the headlines. The business proceeded taking care of the project alone until February 1998, when it shared Nokia, Intel to its research, IBM and Toshiba to found the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The purpose that is main of SIG is protect the integrity associated with technology and control its development. Its responsible for the certification procedure that all devices must complete before they can be acknowledged as having a Bluetooth compliant product. Without certification, a product cannot claim to be Bluetooth-enabled or use the Bluetooth trademark. The certification procedure ensures that designers stick to the standard and guarantee interoperability.
The commercial specification, Bluetooth 1.0, was issued in July 1999 and ratified in February of this year. The growth of activity in the technology is illustrated by the fact that there are currently some 2000 companies working on or developing products based on this specification. From its European origins — it is named after a century that is 10th King — Bluetooth has inevitably become of worldwide interest to both manufacturers and prospective users.
The attraction is that Bluetooth could offer low cost, small physical size (single chip) and low power consumption over throughput and range. Allied to its capability to function in noisy radio environments and offer transmission that is high. These features, along with help for real-time traffic of both vocals and information, allow it to be an attractive wireless technology that is networking personal digital assistants (PDA), cell phones and laptop computers.
Licensed range is high priced, particularly in European countries ([greater than] $100 billion paid for 140 MHz). A major appeal of Bluetooth is it runs at the internationally available unlicensed industrial, clinical and medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz frequency musical organization, allowing compatibility that is worldwide. Figure 1 shows the european spectrum that is 3G vs. the WLAN spectrum (83.5 MHz in the 2.4 GHz band and 455 MHz into the 5 GHz band) free of charge. Bluetooth wireless technology operates in a multiple piconet topology (see Figure 2) that supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. With the specification that is current as much as seven servant devices are set to communicate with a master radio in a single unit. As Figure 3 illustrates, several of these piconets could be founded and connected together in advertising hoc scatternets to allow communication among continually configurations that are flexible. All devices in the same piconet have priority synchronization, but other products can be set to enter.

Bluetooth’s baseband technology supports both synchronous connection orientated (SCO) links for voice and asynchronous connectionless (AC) links for packet data. Both utilize time division duplex (TDD) as the access technique for full duplex transmission. Voice coding is accomplished using a continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation strategy, under which voice packets should never be retransmitted. The master device controls the web link bandwidth and decides how much bandwidth to share with each slave and slaves should be polled before transmission.
An asynchronous channel that transmits data can support an asymmetric link of 721 kbps in either direction and permit 57.6 kbps in return. The channel can support 432.6 kbps for a symmetric link. Since Bluetooth devices can help three vocals stations running at 64 kbps, or one data channel, they can achieve information prices of up to 1Mbps. The Bluetooth 1.0 specification calls for 1 mW transmitters with a nominal antenna power of 0 dBm to operate up to 10 m (type of sight). A greater energy transmitter of 100 mW (+20 dBm) included in the specification increases the number to 100 m, even though this will require a separate PA antenna driver. The compromise is increased costs and energy usage.
Bluetooth makes use of regularity hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology, where the system will frequency hop 1,600 times a second, delivering short time division multiplexed packets with each hop. With spread spectrum hopping, the sequence is random and the receiver must hunt down the chosen transmission frequency after each hop. Every 1.28 seconds before any connections in a piconet are created, all devices are in standby mode which allows for the device to listen on 32 hop frequencies defined for each unit, for messages. The text starts when one device initiates an association and becomes the master associated with the piconet. A connection is made by a full page message then an inquiry message followed by a page message is sent if the address is known, and if it is not. The devices synchronize and then connect. At the point of connection each device assumes a media access control (MAC) address to distinguish them.
ROLL-OUT
The Bluetooth technical specification may be clear, product roll-out less so. The marketing machines did their job in creating awareness but in the process raised expectations that have yet to be fulfilled. All too quickly allegations, particularly in the media, of over hype and over elaborate market forecasts were hitting the headlines. However, last year saw a significant number of product launches together with the initial shipments of products bearing the Bluetooth logo. There has been consolidation for the half that is first of year because of the end of 2001 seeing significant predictions.
Frost & Sullivan forecasts global shipments of Bluetooth-enabled items to achieve over 11 million units in 2001, equaling $2.5 billion in revenues, while Micrologic Research is more conservative featuring its estimation that the market will reach five million devices in 2001 and 1.2 billion in 2005. Such variations in figures tend to muddy the waters and emphasize the unpredictability of the market, but in such an embryonic technology this is perhaps understandable.
This is certainly a point made by Michael Wall, research analyst at Frost & Sullivan, who has stated: “Although the delays in the development of Bluetooth are beginning to prompt a backlash from certain sections of the media, industry observers have to take the infancy of Bluetooth as an industry standard technology into consideration when assessing the status of this marketplace. Apart from Ericsson, the pioneers that are original even the most progressive designers were not attracted to the project until 1998. Other mobile communications technologies such as for example the GSM took longer to develop than will be allowed for Bluetooth.”
Semiconductor chipset development is an integral element in the technology’s progress, with a selection of development designs rising within the Bluetooth semiconductor industry. Two manufacturing that is distinct are increasingly being taken. There are either those offering complete integrated solutions from the silicon wafer level to the consumer product degree or those part that is providing of sum of a chipset, that is, baseband, radio and pc software.
SILICON ALTERNATIVES
Debate continues over probably the most effective choice of silicon technology for Bluetooth. The diversity of silicon technologies and solutions architectures being used has emphasized the software protocol stack. It has become one of the most crucial elements of the solution, especially with regards to achieving interoperability and becomes increasingly important as semiconductor companies come closer to starting their products on the market.
Alongside some of the big names a number of smaller design services companies have entered the Bluetooth software market offering complete or partial protocol stacks to semiconductor developers. In the same vein Bluetooth has offered a number of smaller, highly innovative fabless semiconductor developers, such as Cambridge Silicon Radio and Silicon Wave, an opportunity to build early market share with fast time-to-market solutions. Between the bigger built-in Bluetooth developers, Philips Semiconductors happens to be the player that is main offer solutions in volume. It is expected that a large number of solutions are going to be on offer by the end of 2001.
Market success can be dependant on a chicken and egg combination of chipset supply. Observers have warned that restrictions in the supply of chipsets to smaller product developers may cause delays in the time-to-market of new innovative applications that will provide revenue that is future for chipset companies. Despite such terms of care Frost & Sullivan forecasts that the sum total shipments of Bluetooth chipsets would be over 956 million in 2006, therefore the total market for these chipsets is predicted to be over $2.3 billion in 2006. Further up the value chain from chipsets the early offerings that are bluetooth fairly generic wireless community access items, such as Computer cards and other add-on products, along with access points (AP).
Also, in European countries, a significant number of Bluetooth mobile phones were launched at the CeBIT exhibition in Germany in March 2001 with many more expected over the summer. However, the market cocktail has become more intriguing because of 30 market developments. At a time when the huge cost of 3G licenses is impacting in the telecoms currency markets plus the gear necessary to roll-out Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) companies hasn’t yet arrive at fruition, most of the services prepared for 3G mobile could possibly be delivered by available technologies which operate in unlicensed (free) frequency bands.
Mobile operators who’ve 3G permit debts to service are under great pressure to maximize revenue of current data solutions, and demonstrate that the market has got the appetite for 2.5G and 3G services. Bluetooth mobile phones could be one solution by allowing users access to the Internet on their PDA using the phone as a wireless gateway. Ericsson, as an example, is promoting the bluetooth information that is local (BLIP), which provides Bluetooth access to the Internet, within range of a BLIP access point. Such developments will continue to keep Bluetooth in the headlines and the eye that is public.
WLAN
WLANs are appearing from the wings as a contender that is strong rival Bluetooth. WLANs enable the Ethernet cable from the wall outlet to a device (such as a PC) to be replaced by a wireless link between an access point and a wireless user interface card that is either part of the wireless device or connected to it. The technology is in no way a newcomer, however. In fact, it was back in 1990 when, in the US, the IEEE 802.11 Wireless geographic area Networks guidelines performing Group was formed using the task of developing a global standard for radio gear and companies operating into the 2.4GHz unlicensed regularity band for information rates of 1 and 2 Mbps.
Over 10 years ago what the first 802.11 standard did, to a degree, had been to simply help unify a confused WLAN marketplace, that was crowded with proprietary solutions. Although the original specification supported three different transmission media — frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and infrared (IR) — the major area of development has been for DSSS. DSSS spreads the signal over several frequencies, can switch channels to avoid interference and also makes the signal harder to intercept than standard wired Ethernet.
The IEEE 802.11 standard was adopted in 1997. The modulation scheme used when running during the 1 Mbps rate is binary phase shift keying (BPSK) where each symbol carries one bit and one million symbols per second (1 Msps) are transmitted. Thus, with each symbol storing one bit, the bit-rate achieved is 1 Mbps. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is the modulation scheme used to yield 2 Mbps. The system is able to transmit two channels simultaneously, and although the symbol rate is still 1 Msps with QPSK mapping two bits per symbol, the result yields 2 Mbps with this technique. Nonetheless, these data rates of 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps are considerably slow compared to wired LAN equivalents. This aligned with concerns over interperability and price, limited take up and acceptance for the standard as a viable option.
IEEE 802.11B
That all changed in September 1999 when the IEEE ratified a fresh rate that is high for WLANs – IEEE 802.11b, which also goes under the various guises of long range router (Wireless Fidelity) and high rate wireless Ethernet. It is significant because it offers a top-end data rate of 11 Mbps. Each access point can help dozens of connections, although all of them must share 11 Mbps of capability. There might be three access points involved in the same area, and each typically has an indoor range of 90 m at 1 Mbps and 25 m at 11 Mbps. To achieve this higher data rate the IEEE 802.11 b specifies complementary code keying (CCK) as the modulation scheme. The technique maps four bits per icon to achieve 8 Mbps, which allied to a heightened rate of 1.375 Msps yields a bit rate of 11 Mbps. Consequently, even though the number of symbols sent per second hardly varies from the symbol rate used for IEEE 802.11 LANs, more hits per second are sent. Also, as CCK is a DSSS technique, 802.11 b is backward-compatible with products that meet the origin al 802.11 specification, enabling 802.11b products that are standard interoperate with 802.11 compliant DSSS items by dropping back once again to 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps procedure.
With a business human body to verify interoperability and also the interoperability of 802.11b cards being assured, as a result of there being simply two silicon manufacturers worldwide making use of a MAC that is similar layer, that deficiency in the WLAN offering has been addressed. The increased bit rate of 11 Mbps has also dealt with the performance issue with 802.11b being able to match standard Ethernet for speed. This has led to a renewed curiosity about, and perhaps more importantly, investment in the development of 802.11b products by big players whom would not view any participation in 1 to 2 Mbps items as a option that is viable.
Now, the huge benefits that WLANs offer with regards to flexibility and flexibility, allied to increased speed together with dropping costs of Computer cards, has managed to get an attractive option for the home market where broadband access is growing for small businesses and particularly for the enterprise customer. Typical applications include the creation of ad hoc LANs, the linking of portables into a wired infrastructure, WLAN bridging and in peer-to-peer networks where PCs with wireless cards can directly exchange data. Instead, an access point allows PCs to keep in touch with fixed Ethernet topologies via an Ethernet hub or switch port. Although WLAN cards are still far more expensive than ordinary cable-based Ethernet cards, having a standard means that all manufacturers move to the same technology and prices come down. Today there are cards at around the $200 mark.
WIFI DEPLOYMENT
The key to the progress of WiFi is its wide and global deployment, and without any hype it has begun. Airports as far afield as Europe, Japan, Hong Kong and the US have installed 802.llb networks, with resort hotels and seminar facilities also being prime regions of development. Furthermore, aided by the increased utilization of laptops, the natural synergy between their mobility and the mobility offered by WLANs is propelling the growth of 802.llb. Offering mobility is going to be the key to success of WiFi. For instance, when users have a notebook, they want to be able to use it in the working workplace, at home as well as on their travels and never having to swap cards. Only a deployment that is wide of will facilitate that.
Mobile operators also see WLANs as an affordable and easy way to provide high speed access to densely populated areas. Because they rely on very short-range transmissions, users see improved battery life, and with health risks being a concern there is the advantage that is added of power usage. Once more, at CeBit there were numerous gear providers showing WiFi elements by means of Computer cards, universal bus that is serialUSB) devices, access points and home gateways. However, at present the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) only recognizes one test house in the US for certification of WiFi products with plans for a test that is european become recognized quickly. Such expansion is a must for the technology to be viewed as truly worldwide regarding development.
The key factor in the development and development of this WLAN market has been the increased data rate of 11 Mbps being afforded by the 802.llb standard. However, in October last year the IEEE Standards Board approved P802.llg, a new project within the IEEE 802.1 WLAN Working Group to enhance the data rate of WLANs operating in the frequency band that is 2.4GHz. The expectation is the information rates are risen to higher than 20 Mbps as well as the mission associated with task group is always to review proposals. Aspects of development currently being undertaken which could afford this ‘doubled’ data rate include a new modulation technology that improves the robustness of RF information transmissions. It not only overcomes a lot of the background RF sound and other sources of disturbance but in addition offers better performance against multipath interference.
On the receiver part, advanced technology that is equalizer in concert with these new modulation algorithms will act to reduce the need to retransmit data packets. This is important because when interference in WLANs causes unrecoverable corruption of a reflected information stream or loud signals are discarded and therefore are retransmitted which slows the info rate and interrupts the data movement, the system is less reliable for realtime transmission. With advanced equalizer technologies, reflected or signals that are noisy not simply discarded or filtered out. Forward mistake correction (FEC) algorithms may take corrupted signals and reconstruct them, dramatically reducing retransmits.
Data rates of over 20 Mbps will start new applications for the industry to exploit. As might be expected, interest shall most likely be light emitting diode by leisure applications. Quicker transmission speeds will enable streaming video for high definition television and graphics for interactive gaming while also providing the headroom to accommodate new applications when they come on stream. Businesses and enterprises are always screaming out for the means to transmit large amounts of data quickly. Home automation will be another avenue by facilitating the interaction of heating, lighting, air security and conditioning systems.
THE WLAN MARKET
Such applications could be a way off nevertheless the WLAN is a market that is growing the statistics show. According to the latest figures from IDC worldwide WLAN equipment revenue jumped 80% in 2000, breaking the $1 billion mark. IDC predicts that by the end of 2005 the market will be approaching $3.2 billion. Demand, especially in the US, has been particularly strong in vertical industries such as education, retail and health care. The market will see increased use of WLANs in the home and small- to medium-sized business (SMB) segments together with the growth of broadband in the coming years. Inspite of the outlook that is optimistic the entire market, particularly in the US, Western Europe and Japan, IDC believes vendors will have to over come several hurdles, including resolving standardization dilemmas, educating their partners, improving safety and reducing costs to ensure WLANs are affordable for conventional sections.
INTERFERENCE
The chipset market for 2.4 GHz WLAN products is placed to keep to grow, although development shall not be as high as for Bluetooth chipsets. Frost & Sullivan anticipates direct sequence 802.11b Chipsets to be in great demand, predicting that the market for them shall be worth over $1.3 billion in 2006. This demand shall be driven by the growth in mobile computing and by dropping item costs.
Bluetooth and WLANs may have profiles that are differing terms of marketing and publicity but it is clear from the market statistics and investment in technical development that both are technologies that are becoming established and set to grow. However, can they coexist technically? Interference has been a topic of debate and concern since the early stages of Bluetooth development and to a extent that is certain is now a fear of the unknown. What is known is interference between 802.1 lb and devices that are bluetooth occur. In the US the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires every device operating in unlicensed bands to have a label stating that it can cause interference. However, what’s not known is the potential of this problem. The fact the devices run in an unlicensed band and projections of mushrooming market growth for Bluetooth and 802.1lb is fueling concerns.
Even though amount of concern may turn down to be unwarranted, this has at the very least grabbed the interest of wireless criteria groups, regulatory figures and industry that is wireless. They are all well aware that if users do experience interference problems it will damage user self-confidence into the technology. With so much investment it is a risk that manufacturers, in particular, cannot take. Global development that is technical is being performed and standards are being addressed to limit disturbance. In the US the IEEE 802.15.2 Task Group is coordinating efforts, and the FCC has also put together a set of rules that allow multiple devices to share the spectrum, providing room for considerable innovation in building radios that can resist interference.
Consequently, extensive research observe the consequence that WiFi and Bluetooth devices operating in the same vicinity have actually using one another is under method. Results do vary and Figures 4 and 5 are types of a study that is particular illustrate the effect. However, what is generally accepted is that if the antennas of the Bluetooth and WiFi devices are kept over 2m apart, then there will be graceful degradation of the two protocols, which will only be noticed by very sensitive users. Move the two antennas within a meter, but, and there may be interference that is significant.
Interference really becomes a serious issue when both radios are integrated into the same device with the antennas close together. Examples of when the two devices are collocated (that is, separated by less than 10cm) are in a combination PC card and laptops or Internet appliances enabled with both technologies. Also, it is believed that collocated products will play an role that is important products such as notebook PCs. An illustration is a notebook who has a Bluetooth radio integrated for link with a PDA or cell phone and at exactly the same time has a WiFi radio incorporated for LAN access.
COLLOCATION
Coexistence is a major issue for such applications and one which the industry is striving to address with standards bodies and wireless companies starting to develop and lobby for a variety of coexistence approaches. These vary from regulatory intervention and special standards task forces such as IEEE 802.15.2 to various technical approaches ranging from simple device ‘collocation without any coexistence mechanisms’ to integrated silicon solutions covering the entire sub-system that is wireless.
Mobilian Corporation, together with industry partners, is a business working on developing a remedy and contains categorized these various approaches that are technical a performance and user experience hierarchy, as shown in Figure 6, with each having their strengths and limitations. ‘Collocation without a coexistence mechanism ‘is relatively controversial. It does have the advantage of being a rapid time-to-market approach which gives a single-card guide design just. The close proximity of the two radios with no coexistence mechanism will likely produce worst-case situations, and certainly will consequently result in significant degradation to both radios’ performance.
Dual-mode radio switching will not require changes to your silicon, and could be reasonably quick to advertise. It incorporates a coexistence apparatus that needs that while one radio is functional, the other is totally suspended. The procedure can primarily be implemented in two ways. In the first, the system simply shuts the radio that is non-operating with no signaling to many other nodes in its network. This could easily lead to problems for the system and certainly will drop performance levels below that of simple ‘collocation without a coexistence system.’ The second method does signal other network nodes that it is suspending one of its radios. Performance will still be 60 percent lower than that of unhindered radios because of its nature that is modal on/one off), but is a lot better than simply shutting the radios down. Neither method supports switching while Bluetooth voice (SCO) links are in procedure.
Driver-level transmit switching generally describes an approach by which application transmit demands are mediated at the driver degree, thereby avoiding transmission that is simultaneous. Intuitively, this approach degrades throughput by some measure simply due to its modal transmit framework. More crucial, though, are its restrictions to avoid collisions with incoming packets. The resulting transmission of one protocol during reception of this other causes loss of gotten packets, disturbance and user that is potential. This is caused by the technique’s dependence on the host operating system, which will be broadly speaking non-deterministic in its reaction time (non-real-time). Once again, this approach will not switch quickly sufficient to guide Bluetooth SCO links, and will also have problems mitigating the disturbance from Bluetooth piconet master/slave polling activities.
While Bluetooth adaptive hopping definitely improves performance that is simultaneous limited penetration scenarios, its widespread adoption will likely require intervention from regulatory organizations and standards bodies. Even under a fast-track program, this can be a process that is time-consuming. This time-delay exacerbates the issue that the method’s effectiveness is compromised with higher penetrations of WiFi systems and unmodified Bluetooth devices. Adaptive hopping will likely be initiated as an Bluetooth that is optional profile indicating that modified products will maybe not utilize the functionality in piconets with unmodified products. Further, into the existence greater than one Bluetooth piconet or WiFi system, adaptive hopping is counter productive to coexistence.
MAC-level switching is the most effective associated with modal/switching style approaches, and provides performance levels approaching those in no-interference scenarios. It is a collaborative technique accomplished by exchanging information between the two protocols during the MAC level and managing transmit/receive operations properly. Because MAC-level switching is carried out in the baseband, with the ability to switch between protocols at a much faster rate than driver-level approaches. Consequently, with the ability to mitigate lots of the problems that driver-level cannot that is switching. MAC-level switching does not suffer from transmitting signals into incoming receptions, Bluetooth polling or system that is operating. But, its vunerable to adjacent-channel interference and does suffer noticeable degradation. Also, it has a longer development cycle than driver-level approaches because it is located in the baseband.
Simultaneous procedure offers the power to immediately identify all available networks that are wireless select the ones needed and connect to them seamlessly. By providing coexistence in a highly integrated solution that is two-chip an analog front-end chip and an electronic digital baseband chip – it allows simultaneous procedure of this two protocols while eliminating disturbance and maintaining dependability and performance. Interference is a genuine concern and, as has been illustrated, there are measures that can be taken and innovative initiatives under development to provide coexistence particularly for collocated devices. The potential market is too large and too lucrative for every effort not to be made to ensure smooth operation.
BLUETOOTH vs. WLAN APPLICATIONS
Bluetooth and WLAN could be competing within the frequency that is same but are they competing for the same applications? Due to its simplicity in not having to be configured, low power, short range and low cost Bluetooth will be focused on small devices such as PDAs and cell phones. To provide access and synchronization of those personal devices there may also be the need for Bluetooth radios to be included in access points and notebooks.
Another possibility that Bluetooth affords is the deconstruction of products into specific components, allowing for brand new kind factors and device types. For instance, by having a separate headset there is no longer the need to include one in a cell phone, which simply becomes a cellular receiver/transmitter interacting with the cellular network, PDAs and laptops. More long-term, a so-called killer application for Bluetooth could well be public access. It’s all well to own synchronization between your notebook, PDA or mobile phone but, when in an airport or retail center, usage of the Internet or information about the local area would be valuable. For that to happen, though, there is the chicken and egg situation where a company is not going to deploy Bluetooth enabled access points unless you can find significant amounts of devices available on the market to use them and vice versa. The same is true of the providers for the information that users will be seeking. Nevertheless, this is an certain area actively being develop ed.
Public access is a application that is definite WLAN and, as has been mentioned, systems are already being globally deployed in airports. Their high data rate being comparable to the wired Ethernet makes them especially appropriate the enterprise sector for computer networking between PCs and also to make use of the trend towards laptop flexibility. Simpleness, low cost plus the center for expansion also make WLAN ideal for small office home office (SoHo) execution as well as the expansion of the property broadband access market, particularly in the united states, also starts up opportunities.
THE 5 FREQUENCY that is GHZ BAND
Regardless if simply a fraction of these applications for Bluetooth and WLAN come to fruition, the slim (80 GHz) 2.4 GHz musical organization will soon be congested. In expectation of the, spectrum will play a role that is crucial the deployment of next-generation, high speed WLANs and has prompted licensing authorities globally to allocate large blocks of license free spectrum in the 5 GHz band. As Figure 7 shows, in Europe, a total of 455 MHz is available in the two blocks from 5.15 to 5.35 GHz and from 5.470 to 5.725 GHz. Likewise, the united states has allocated a complete of 300 MHz in the two obstructs of spectrum at 5.15 to 5.35 GHz and 5.725 to 5.825 GHz. In Japan, one 100 MHz block at 5.15 to 5.25 GHz has been considered.
Again two different 5 GHz criteria are being developed on either part associated with Atlantic with both specs providing information prices as high as 54 Mbps, and for that reason well placed to give speed that is high services. Originating in the US the IEEE 802.11a standard was ratified in 1999. The physical layer (PHY) is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and shares a common MAC layer with all IEEE 802.11 standards 802.11b that is including.
Instead the European Telecommunications Standards institute (ETSI) is developing performance that is high LAN (HIPERLAN) standards as part of its Broadband broadcast Access Network (BRAN) initiative. Under its remit is the growth of four standards — HIPERLAN1, HIPERLAN2, HIPERLink (created for indoor radio backbones) and HIPERAccess (intended for fixed Outdoor use to provide usage of a wired infrastructure).
The HIPERLAN1 standard, which is on the basis of the well-established means of Gaussian shift that is minimum (GMSK) modulation, is complete and was ratified in 1997. HIPERLink and HIPERAccess, on the other hand, are at the early stages of development. It is HIPERLAN2 where activity that is current concentrated.
The physical layers of both 802.11a and HIPERLAN2 use OFDM modulation to reach speed that is high rates. This multichannel spread spectrum modulation technique allows individual channels to maintain their distance (or orthogonality) to adjacent channels, enabling data symbols to be reliably extracted and multiple subchannels to overlap in the frequency domain for increased efficiency that is spectral. As an example, in the range allocation for Europe, HIPERLAN2 channels is going to be spaced 20 MHz apart for an overall total of 19 channels.
Both IEEE 802.11a and HIPERLAN2 specify an OFDM layer that is physical splits the information signal across 52 separate sub-carriers. 48 provide separate wireless pathways for synchronous data transfer, as the staying four are used as a reference to disregard frequency or phase shifts of this signal during transmission and offer synchronization. Synchronization allows coherent (in-phase) demodulation. The 2 criteria may have this similarity but differ over the layer that is physical 802.11a generally speaking viewed as simpler and less complex, while HIPERLAN2 is mote advanced (or complicated according to your viewpoint) with wider scope.
HIPERLAN2
For HIPERLAN2, mobile terminals such as for instance a laptop computer or handheld products keep in touch with access points. To provide continuous coverage, these access points must have overlapping coverage areas. Coverage typically extends 30 m indoors and 150 m in unobstructed environments. By utilizing automatic frequency allocation (AFA) access points monitor the HIPERLAN radio channels around them and automatically select an channel that is unused. A mobile terminal, after association, will only communicate with one AP at each and every stage, but if it receives a better signal strength it can request to be connected to another. When a mobile terminal roams from the coverage area of one access point to another, it automatically initiates a handoff to the access point that is new. The APs taking part in the handover ensure that established connections over the air interface as well as security associations are transparently shifted from the old to the new. Security support includes both key negotiation, authentication (conventions such as the netw ork access identifier (NAI) and X.509 may be used), along with encryption using DES or 3-DES.
OFDM modulation can supply transmission rates of 54 Mbps but this is often dynamically adjusted to a diminished rate by making use of different modulation schemes depending on the prevalent radio conditions. All traffic is transmitted on connections, bi-directional for unicast traffic and uni-directional towards the mobile terminals for broadcast and multicast traffic. This method makes help for quality of service (QoS), implemented through time slots, straightforward. QoS parameters include bandwidth, bit error rate, latency and jitter. The request that is original a mobile terminal to send data uses specific time slots that are allocated for random access. The access point grants access by allocating time that is specific for a particular duration in transportation channels. The terminal that is mobile sends data without interruption from other mobile terminals operating on that frequency. A control channel provides feedback to the sender, indicating whether data was received in error and whether it must be retransmitted. The QoS de livered depends on how the HIPERLAN2 network interoperates with the fixed network; for example, when it is via packet-based Ethernet, cell-based ATM or internet protocol address.
HIPERLAN2 operates as a extension that is seamless of networks, so wired network nodes see HIPERLAN2 nodes as other network nodes. All networking that is common at layer 3 (internet protocol address and IPX, as an example) will run over HIPERLAN2, allowing all typical network-based applications to use, making the technology both system and application independent. Interoperation with Ethernet systems is supported from the beginning, but extensions that are easy provide support for ATM, PPP, IP and UMTS. The standard has been specified with the clear objective of achieving interoperability plus the industry consortium, HIPERLAN2 Global Forum (H2GF), aims to perform tests to validate interoperability among products from member businesses.
Probably the most application that is obvious HIPERLAN2 will be in the enterprise LAN environment but networks can also be deployed at ‘hot spot’ areas such as airports and hotels, supplying remote access and Internet services to business people. Its ability to act as an alternative access technology to 3G cellular networks is also a application that is key. The transmission of video streams in conjunction with datacom applications, HiperLAN2 has potential applications in the home by creating a wireless infrastructure for home devices (for connecting home PCs, VCRs, cameras and printers, for example) as the high throughput and QoS features of HIPERLAN2 support.
HIPERLAN2 almost appears too good to be real and price-to-market is a concern. For instance, the bigger price of silicon for OFDM operation could stall reasonably priced implementation. At present, expenses stay relatively high for 5 GHz OFDM systems, due primarily to the high linearity demands that it places on the power amplifier in the transmitter and the low noise amplifier in the receiver. Consequently, HIPERLAN2 products will likely cost more than lower speed alternatives. Also, some view the fact that HIPERLAN2 is sophisticated and able to support a range that is wide of certainly not as a selling point but as overkill that comes at a price.
IEEE 802.lla
In the other hand, IEEE 802.lla, due to its simplicity and maturity, represents lower costs and a faster time-to-market. However, although 802.1la and HIPERLAN2 have a near identical physical layer, they differ into the MAC layer. Inadequacies include integrated quality of service, guaranteeing performance in work environments when streaming home video. Therefore, efforts to close the MAC gap are a priority. Moreover, whereas the IEEE 802.lla and HIPERLAN2 both meet US regulatory spectrum requirements, HIPERLAN2 is the only 5 GHz WLAN that satisfies European interference avoidance limitations. Conversely, HIPERLAN2 must limit the regularity power and range for the US to adhere to FCC rules.
The danger is obvious aided by the possibility that the united states and Europe will embrace two standards that are different. The consequence that the corporates’ inability to use one standard and benefit from lower acquisition and support costs could delay deployment of 5GHz LANs that is wireless significantly. It is a issue that is serious global development because they are two incompatible WLAN standards. Thus, if 802.lla and HIPERLAN2 wireless terminals were operating in the same area, there would be interference, no coexistence and no interworking. Also, no roaming is feasible if different access points were deployed in various areas that are public. The end user will be required to make a standards option as well as the 5 GHz WLAN market is vulnerable to being fragmented if different industry players follow different standards.
To avoid this a few industry partners have started a 5 GHz industry advisory group. In the HIPERLAN2 ETSI BRAN 802.lla and group Forum there are sub groups particularly taking a look at what is required to arrive at one standard. At present, there is certainly work that is much be done.
CONCLUSION
The short range wireless data networking headlines have been dominated by Bluetooth, resulting in unreasonably high expectations over the last few years. What tends to be forgotten is that, in relation to the development of similar technologies, Bluetooth is still embryonic. It is also a victim of its own potential. Articles on the subject wax lyrical about the possibility of consumer appliances being Bluetooth-enabled to have the capacity to ‘talk’ to each other and the merits of so-called ‘hidden computing’ applications. These will allow synchronization of laptops, PDAs and phones that are mobile automatically upgrade calendars, appointments and email whenever within range. Envisaged commercial applications are the monitoring that is wireless of goods and chemical processes.
However, the majority of the applications that are early essentially cable replacement or connection substitutes primarily aimed at the cell phone and FDA markets. The industry needs to walk before it can run so it should be, and to a great extent is, concentrating on steady development and addressing ways of ensuring interoperability, standardization and coexistence issues. Bluetooth has its origins in Europe having its initial development concentrated in Scandinavia, and even though its undoubtedly a global technology, that is where its early deployment will be greatest. Bluetooth has attracted all the players that are key investment is considerable and maybe some of the hype is justified.
The IEEE 802.llb (WiFi) WLAN standard has been developed steadily without any razzmatazz on the other side of the coin and the Atlantic, but in the same 2.4 GHz unlicensed frequency band. Its high data rate, together with the falling costs of PC cards, allied to the mobility and flexibility it offers has seen significant market growth. It is in a position to enjoy the rise within the usage of laptop computers and development in home broadband access. Globally, 802.1lb systems are making inroads in ‘hot spot’ applications at airports, seminar facilities and hotels, and WiFi items are striking the marketplace. Once again, dilemmas of interoperability, coexistence and standardization are being addressed. However, although the establishment of a test that is registered in European countries will aid acceptance, certification has to be much more widespread.
Because of the inevitability that the unlicensed 2.4 GHz musical organization will end up congested, the development of the 5 GHz band for next generation high speed WLANs is vital. However, the possibility of fragmentation, with separate standards being adopted in the US and Europe is a threat that is real worldwide development and may delay deployment dramatically. A standards war will gain nobody, perhaps undermining self-confidence and making manufacturers cautious about significant investment.
Going wireless has include some strings connected but short range wireless systems have actually a term future that is long. Its ability to satisfy the industry’s desire for seamless connectivity will ensure continued market growth and development.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Mcdougal want to thank the following individuals and companies for their aid in compiling this health supplement:
* Mobilian Corporation, www.mobilian.com
* Vincent Vermeer, company development manager — Wireless Connectivity Division, 3COM (Europe), www.3com.com
* Dr Jamshid Khun Jush, chairman of ETSI BRAN and specialist that is senior LANs at Ericsson, www.ericsson.com
* Martin Johnsson, president HIPERLAN2 Global Forum and WLAN item manager at Ericsson, www.ericsson.com/wlan
* Peter Bates, VP company development, www.bluesocket.com
* Andy Craigen, senior manager, Wireless Terminals Applications, Agere techniques
* Bob Heile, chairman IEEE 802.15 Working Group
* The organizers and speakers during the Wireless LAN conference in London in April 2001. Organized by EF-Telecoms, www.ef-international.co.uk
* Frost & Sullivan, www.frost.com
* Figure 2 and Figure 3 are taken with permission from presentations available on www.ieee802.org/15/ EUROPEAN 3G SPECTRUM AT [greater than]$700 M PER MHz COST $B GERMANY 47.5 UK 32.9 ITALY 11.4 FRANCE 9.3 Note: Table made from bar graph
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The development of short range wireless systems, especially Bluetooth and wireless area that is local (WLAN) has captured the industry’s imagination, if not the market that was initially predicted. Bluetooth technology originated in Europe, with early development and research driven by European-based organizations. In this supplement that is special Journal reviews current European activity, worldwide expansion and globally competing technologies to find out whether going wireless is sold with strings attached.
No wires — what an attractive proposition! Consider the savings in cabling costs and flexibility offered if an office’s computers were served by a WLAN. Just imagine being able to eliminate the tangled mass of wires presently necessary to connect a PC, not just towards the system, but in addition to its peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse and printer. Meanwhile, the mobility of mobile and technology that is cordless promoted some ideas for a generic short range wireless access solution for different products.
These are all desirable aims nevertheless the interest in and development of short range wireless information networking have not simply been prompted by the need to disentangle office chairs from trailing wires. The impetus that is real result from the desire and expectation of people and organizations to be able to gain access to data and information nearly anytime, anywhere, anyplace. Laptop-based users and broadband access in homes are more of the elements converging to drive ideas of a short range wireless access solution as well. Ally that with the prospect of vast numbers of cell phones becoming Internet enabled with users wanting to link up to laptops, headsets, hands-free kits and LAN access points, and a lucrative market is guaranteed provided the technology is available to implement it.

With such a large and untapped market there has been no shortage of contenders vying to provide that technology. This article looks at two of the leading contenders, Bluetooth and WLANs. Issues covered add how Bluetooth has built on its European origins and early development to capitalize on Europe’s Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) to enable it and synergize with it, together with the opportunities that 3G could offer. By mapping WLAN development and deployment that is global is regarded as both a competing technology and growth market in unique right.
BLUETOOTH: AN OVERVIEW
Since Ericsson originally devised the technology in 1994 Bluetooth has grabbed the imagination and most of the headlines. The organization proceeded taking care of the project alone until February 1998, whenever it shared Nokia, Intel to its research, IBM and Toshiba to found the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The main purpose of the SIG would be to protect the integrity of this technology and control its development. It’s accountable for the official certification procedure that most products must complete before they may be called having a bluetooth product that is compliant. Without official certification, a product cannot claim to be Bluetooth-enabled or use the Bluetooth trademark. The official certification procedure means that designers stick to the standard and guarantee interoperability.
The specification that is commercial Bluetooth 1.0, was issued in July 1999 and ratified in February of this year. The growth of activity in the technology is illustrated by the fact that there are currently some 2000 companies working on or products that are developing on this specification. From the European origins — it is called after a century that is 10th King — Bluetooth has inevitably become of global interest to both manufacturers and prospective users.
The attraction is that Bluetooth could offer cost that is low small physical size (single chip) and low power consumption over throughput and range. Allied to its capability to function in noisy radio environments and offer transmission that is high. These features, along with help for real-time traffic of both sound and data, make it an attractive wireless networking technology for individual digital assistants (PDA), mobile phones and laptop computers.
Licensed spectrum is high priced, particularly in Europe ([greater than] $100 billion paid for 140 MHz). A major benefit of Bluetooth is it runs at the internationally available unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz frequency band, enabling worldwide compatibility. Figure 1 shows the European 3G spectrum cost vs. the WLAN spectrum (83.5 MHz in the 2.4 GHz band and 455 MHz in the 5 GHz band) at no cost. Bluetooth wireless technology operates in a multiple piconet topology (see Figure 2) that supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. With the current specification, up to seven slave products could be set to communicate with a master radio in one single device. As Figure 3 illustrates, several of these piconets could be founded and connected together in ad hoc scatternets allowing communication among constantly flexible configurations. All devices in the piconet that is same priority synchronization, but other devices are set to enter.

Bluetooth’s baseband technology supports both connection that is synchronous (SCO) links for voice and asynchronous connectionless (AC) links for packet data. Both utilize time division duplex (TDD) as the access technique for full duplex transmission. Voice coding is accomplished using a continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation strategy, under which sound packets should never be retransmitted. The master device controls the link bandwidth and chooses how bandwidth that is much give to each slave and slaves must be polled before transmission.
An channel that is asynchronous transmits data can support an asymmetric link of 721 kbps in either direction and permit 57.6 kbps in return. The channel can support 432.6 kbps for a symmetric link. Since Bluetooth devices can support three voice stations operating at 64 kbps, or one information channel, they can achieve information prices of up to 1Mbps. The Bluetooth 1.0 specification calls for 1 mW transmitters with a antenna that is nominal of 0 dBm to operate as much as 10 m (line of sight). A greater power transmitter of 100 mW (+20 dBm) within the specification increases the number to 100 m, although this will demand a separate PA antenna driver. The compromise is increased expenses and power consumption.
Bluetooth utilizes frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology, where the system will frequency hop 1,600 times a second, delivering short time division multiplexed packets with each hop. With spread spectrum hopping, the sequence is random and the receiver must hunt down the chosen transmission frequency after each hop. Before any connections in a piconet are created, all devices are in standby mode which allows for the device to listen on 32 hop frequencies defined for each unit, for messages every 1.28 seconds. The connection begins when one device initiates a link and becomes the master associated with the piconet. An association is created by a page message then an inquiry message followed by a page message is sent if the address is known, and if it is not. The devices synchronize and connect then. At the point of connection each device assumes a media access control (MAC) address to distinguish them.
ROLL-OUT
The Bluetooth technical specification may be clear, product roll-out less so. The marketing machines did their job in creating awareness but in the process raised expectations that have yet to be fulfilled. All too quickly allegations, particularly in the media, of over hype and over elaborate market forecasts were hitting the headlines. However, last year saw a significant number of product launches together with the initial shipments of products bearing the Bluetooth logo. There has been consolidation for the first half of this year because of the end of 2001 seeing significant predictions.
Frost & Sullivan forecasts worldwide shipments of Bluetooth-enabled items to achieve over 11 million devices in 2001, equaling $2.5 billion in revenues, while Micrologic Research is more conservative using its estimation that the market will reach five million devices in 2001 and 1.2 billion in 2005. Such variations in figures tend to muddy the waters and emphasize the unpredictability of the market, but in such an technology that is embryonic is possibly understandable.
This might be a point made by Michael Wall, research analyst at Frost & Sullivan, who has stated: “Although the delays in the development of Bluetooth are beginning to prompt a backlash from certain sections of the media, industry observers have to take the infancy of Bluetooth as an industry standard technology into consideration when assessing the status of this marketplace. Apart from Ericsson, the original pioneers, perhaps the most progressive developers weren’t drawn to the project until 1998. Other mobile communications technologies such as the GSM took longer to produce than will be allowed for Bluetooth.”
Semiconductor chipset development is a vital take into account the technology’s progress, with a selection of development designs emerging in the semiconductor industry that is bluetooth. Two manufacturing that is distinct are being taken. There are either those offering complete integrated solutions through the silicon wafer degree towards the consumer item degree or those part that is providing of amount of a chipset, that is, baseband, radio and computer software.
SILICON OPTIONS
Debate continues over many choice that is effective of technology for Bluetooth. The diversity of silicon technologies and solutions architectures being used has emphasized the software protocol stack. It has become one of the most crucial elements of the solution, especially with regards to interoperability that is achieving will end up increasingly important as semiconductor companies come closer to releasing their products onto the market.
Alongside some of the big names a number of smaller design services companies have entered the Bluetooth software market offering complete or partial protocol stacks to semiconductor developers. An opportunity to build early market share with fast time-to-market solutions in the same vein Bluetooth has offered a number of smaller, highly innovative fabless semiconductor developers, such as Cambridge Silicon Radio and Silicon Wave. Between the bigger integrated Bluetooth designers, Philips Semiconductors has been the main player to offer solutions in volume. It is expected that a number that is large of is being offered by the end of 2001.
Market success can be based on a egg and chicken combination of chipset supply. Observers have warned that restrictions in the supply of chipsets to smaller product developers may cause delays in the time-to-market of new innovative applications that will provide revenue that is future for chipset providers. Despite such words of caution Frost & Sullivan forecasts that the sum total deliveries of Bluetooth chipsets will be over 956 million in 2006, while the market that is total these chipsets is predicted to be over $2.3 billion in 2006. Further up the value chain from chipsets the early Bluetooth offerings are fairly generic wireless network access products, such as for instance Computer cards along with other add-on products, as well as access points (AP).
Additionally, in European countries, a number that is significant of mobile phones were launched at the CeBIT exhibition in Germany in March 2001 with many more expected over the summer. However, the market cocktail has become more intriguing because of 30 market developments. At a time when the cost that is huge of licenses is impacting in the telecoms stock exchange and also the equipment needed to roll-out Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) companies hasn’t yet arrive at fruition, many of the solutions planned for 3G mobile could possibly be delivered by available technologies which operate in unlicensed (free) frequency bands.
Mobile operators who’ve 3G permit debts to service are under some pressure to increase revenue of existing information solutions, and demonstrate that the market gets the appetite for 2.5G and 3G services. Bluetooth mobile phones could be one solution by allowing users access to the Internet on their PDA using the phone as a gateway that is wireless. Ericsson, for instance, is promoting the bluetooth information that is local (BLIP), which provides Bluetooth access to the Internet, within range of a BLIP access point. Such developments will continue to keep Bluetooth in the headlines and the public eye.
WLAN
WLANs are emerging through the wings as a strong contender to rival Bluetooth. WLANs enable the Ethernet cable from the wall outlet to a device (such as a PC) to be replaced by a wireless link between an access point and a wireless interface card that is either part of the wireless unit or attached to it. The technology is in no real way a newcomer, however. In fact, it was back in 1990 when, in the US, the IEEE 802.11 Wireless geographic area Networks guidelines Working Team ended up being created aided by the task of developing a global standard for radio equipment and networks operating in the 2.4GHz unlicensed regularity musical organization for data rates of just one and 2 Mbps.
Over 10 years ago what the initial 802.11 standard did, to a diploma, had been to simply help unify a confused WLAN marketplace, that was crowded with proprietary solutions. Although the specification that is original three different transmission media — frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and infrared (IR) — the major area of development has been for DSSS. DSSS spreads the signal over several frequencies, can switch channels to avoid interference and also makes the harder that is signal intercept than standard wired Ethernet.
The IEEE 802.11 standard was adopted in 1997. The modulation scheme used whenever running during the 1 Mbps rate is phase that is binary keying (BPSK) where each symbol carries one bit and one million symbols per second (1 Msps) are transmitted. Thus, with each symbol storing one bit, the bit-rate achieved is 1 Mbps. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is the modulation scheme used to yield 2 Mbps. The system is able to transmit two channels simultaneously, and although the symbol rate is still 1 Msps with QPSK mapping two bits per symbol, the result yields 2 Mbps with this technique. However, these information prices of just one Mbps and 2 Mbps are considerably slow compared to wired LAN equivalents. This aligned with concerns over interperability and cost, limited take up and acceptance of this standard as a viable option.
IEEE 802.11B
That all changed in September 1999 when the IEEE ratified a fresh high rate standard for WLANs – IEEE 802.11b, which also goes under the various guises of long range router (Wireless Fidelity) and high rate wireless Ethernet. It is significant because it offers a top-end data rate of 11 Mbps. Each access point can support a large number of connections, although all of them must share 11 Mbps of capability. There can be three access points working in the area that is same and each typically has an indoor range of 90 m at 1 Mbps and 25 m at 11 Mbps. The IEEE 802.11 b specifies complementary code keying (CCK) as the modulation scheme to achieve this higher data rate. The strategy maps four bits per icon to attain 8 Mbps, which allied to a heightened rate of 1.375 Msps yields a bit rate of 11 Mbps. Therefore, even though the true number of symbols sent per second hardly varies from the symbol rate used for IEEE 802.11 LANs, more hits per second are sent. Also, as CCK is a DSSS technique, 802.11 b is backward-compatible with products that meet the origin al 802.11 specification, enabling 802.11b standard products to interoperate with 802.11 compliant DSSS products by falling back into 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps procedure.
With a market human body to validate interoperability plus the interoperability of 802.11b cards being assured, because of there being just two silicon manufacturers worldwide utilizing a MAC that is similar layer, that deficiency in the WLAN offering has been addressed. The increased bit rate of 11 Mbps has also dealt with the performance issue with 802.11b being able to match Ethernet that is standard for. This has led to a renewed desire for, and maybe more importantly, investment within the development of 802.11b items by big players whom did not view any involvement in 1 to 2 Mbps products as a viable option.
Now, the huge benefits that WLANs offer with regards to flexibility and flexibility, allied to increased speed as well as the falling costs of PC cards, has managed to get an attractive option for the home market where broadband access is growing for small businesses and particularly for the enterprise customer. Typical applications include the creation of ad hoc LANs, the linking of portables into a wired infrastructure, WLAN bridging and in peer-to-peer networks where PCs with wireless cards can exchange data directly. Instead, an access point allows PCs to keep in touch with fixed Ethernet topologies via an Ethernet hub or switch port. Although WLAN cards remain more expensive than ordinary cable-based Ethernet cards, having a means that is standard all manufacturers move to the same technology and prices come down. Today there are cards at around the $200 mark.
WIFI DEPLOYMENT
The important thing to the progress of WiFi is its wide and deployment that is global and without any hype it has begun. Airports as far afield as Europe, Japan, Hong Kong and the US have installed networks that are 802.llb with hotels and seminar facilities additionally being prime aspects of development. Also, using the increased utilization of laptop computers, the synergy that is natural their mobility and the mobility offered by WLANs is propelling the growth of 802.llb. Offering mobility is going to be the key to success of WiFi. For instance, when users have a notebook, they want to be able to use it in the office, in the home as well as on their travels and never have to swap cards. Just a wide deployment of 802.1lb will facilitate that.
Mobile operators additionally see WLANs as a cheap and way that is easy provide high speed access to densely populated areas. Because they rely on very short-range transmissions, users see improved battery life, and with health risks being a concern there is the advantage that is added of energy usage. Once again, at CeBit there have been numerous gear companies showing WiFi elements by means of Computer cards, universal serial bus (USB) devices, access points and home gateways. However, at present the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) only recognizes one test house in the US for certification of WiFi products with plans for a European test house become recognized soon. Such expansion is essential for the technology to be viewed as truly international in terms of development.
The key factor in the development and development of the WLAN market is the increased data rate of 11 Mbps being afforded by the 802.llb standard. However, in October last year the IEEE Standards Board approved P802.llg, a new project within the IEEE 802.1 WLAN Working Group to enhance the data rate of WLANs operating in the frequency band that is 2.4GHz. The expectation is that the information rates will soon be increased to higher than 20 Mbps and also the mission of this task group is always to review proposals. Aspects of development increasingly being undertaken which could afford this ‘doubled’ data rate add a modulation that is new that improves the robustness of RF data transmissions. It not just overcomes much of the background RF noise and other resources of disturbance but additionally offers better performance against multipath interference.
On the receiver part, advanced equalizer technology used in concert with these new modulation algorithms will act to reduce the need to retransmit data packets. This is important because when interference in WLANs causes unrecoverable corruption of a reflected data stream or loud signals are discarded and tend to be retransmitted which slows the information rate and interrupts the information movement, the machine is less reliable for real time transmission. With advanced equalizer technologies, reflected or signals that are noisy not merely discarded or filtered down. Ahead mistake modification (FEC) algorithms usually takes corrupted signals and reconstruct them, notably reducing retransmits.
Data prices of over 20 Mbps will open up new applications for the industry to exploit. As might be expected, interest will almost certainly be led by leisure applications. Faster transmission speeds will enable video that is streaming high definition television and graphics for interactive gaming while also providing the headroom to accommodate new applications when they come on stream. Businesses and enterprises are always screaming out for the means to transmit large amounts of data quickly. Home automation will be another avenue by facilitating the interaction of heating, lighting, air conditioning and security systems.
THE WLAN MARKET
Such applications are a way off nevertheless the WLAN is a market that is growing the statistics show. According to the latest figures from IDC WLAN that is worldwide equipment jumped 80% in 2000, breaking the $1 billion mark. IDC predicts that by the end of 2005 the market will be approaching $3.2 billion. Demand, especially in the US, has been particularly strong in vertical industries such as education, retail and health care. In the coming years, the market will see increased use of WLANs in the home and small- to medium-sized business (SMB) segments together with the growth of broadband. Despite the outlook that is optimistic the general market, especially in the united states, Western Europe and Japan, IDC thinks vendors will have to overcome a few obstacles, including resolving standardization problems, educating their partners, improving safety and reducing costs so that WLANs are affordable for mainstream portions.
INTERFERENCE
The chipset market for 2.4 GHz WLAN products is placed to carry on to grow, although growth will not be as high as for Bluetooth chipsets. Frost & Sullivan anticipates direct sequence 802.11b Chipsets to be in great demand, predicting that the market for them shall be worth over $1.3 billion in 2006. This demand shall be driven by the development in traveling with a laptop and also by falling item expenses.
Bluetooth and WLANs could have profiles that are differing terms of marketing and publicity but it is clear from the market statistics and investment in technical development that both are technologies that are becoming established and set to grow. However, can they coexist technically? Interference has been a topic of debate and concern since the early stages of Bluetooth development and to a extent that is certain is now a fear associated with unknown. What exactly is known is the fact that interference between 802.1 lb and devices that are bluetooth occur. In the US the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires every device operating in unlicensed bands to have a label stating that it can cause interference. Nevertheless, what is as yet not known is the potential of this issue. The fact the devices run in an unlicensed band and projections of mushrooming market development for Bluetooth and 802.1lb is fueling concerns.
Even though degree of concern risk turning away to be unwarranted, it has at least grabbed the attention of wireless standards groups, regulatory figures and wireless industry participants. They are all well aware that if users do experience interference problems it will damage user confidence in the technology. With so investment that is much is a risk that manufacturers, in particular, cannot take. Global development that is technical is being completed and standards are now being addressed to restrict interference. The IEEE 802.15.2 Task Group is coordinating efforts, and the FCC has also put together a set of rules that allow multiple devices to share the spectrum, providing room for considerable innovation in building radios that can resist interference in the US.
Consequently, substantial research to monitor the end result that WiFi and Bluetooth products operating in identical vicinity have actually on one another is under way. Outcomes do vary and Figures 4 and 5 are examples of a study that is particular illustrate the effect. However, what is generally accepted is that then there will be graceful degradation of the two protocols, which will only be noticed by very sensitive users if the antennas of the Bluetooth and WiFi devices are kept over 2m apart. Move the two antennas within a meter, however, and there may be significant interference.
Interference really becomes a issue that is serious both radios are integrated into the same device with the antennas close together. Examples of when the two devices are collocated (that is, separated by less than 10cm) are in a combination PC card and laptops or Internet appliances enabled with both technologies. Also, it is believed that collocated products will play an role that is important devices such as notebook PCs. A good example is a notebook that has a radio that is bluetooth for connection to a PDA or mobile phone and at the same time has a WiFi radio incorporated for LAN access.
COLLOCATION
Coexistence is a issue that is major such applications and one which the industry is striving to address with standards bodies and wireless companies starting to develop and lobby for a variety of coexistence approaches. These vary from regulatory intervention and special standards task forces such as IEEE 802.15.2 to various technical approaches ranging from simple device ‘collocation without any coexistence mechanisms’ to integrated silicon solutions covering the entire sub-system that is wireless.
Mobilian Corporation, together with industry partners, is a company taking care of developing an answer and has categorized these various technical approaches into a performance and user experience hierarchy, as shown in Figure 6, with each having their strengths and limitations. ‘Collocation without a coexistence mechanism ‘is relatively controversial. It does have the advantage of being a rapid time-to-market approach which provides a single-card guide design only. The close proximity of the two radios with no coexistence procedure will likely create worst-case scenarios, and certainly will consequently cause significant degradation to both radios’ performance.
Dual-mode radio switching will not require changes to the silicon, and may be reasonably quick to market. It includes a coexistence device that needs that while one radio is functional, one other is totally suspended. The operation can be implemented primarily in two ways. In the first, the system simply shuts the radio that is non-operating with no signaling to other nodes in its community. This will cause problems for the network and certainly will drop performance levels below that of simple ‘collocation without a coexistence procedure.’ The method that is second signal other network nodes that it is suspending one of its radios. Performance will still be 60 percent lower than that of unhindered radios because of its modal nature (one on/one off), but is much better than just shutting the radios down. Neither method supports switching while Bluetooth vocals (SCO) links are in operation.
Driver-level transmit switching generally describes an approach by which application transmit needs are mediated during the motorist level, thereby avoiding transmission that is simultaneous. Intuitively, this approach degrades throughput by some measure simply due to its modal transmit structure. More important, though, are its limitations while we are avoiding collisions with incoming packets. The ensuing transmission of 1 protocol during reception of this other notable causes loss of gotten packets, disturbance and user that is potential. This is caused by the technique’s dependence on the host operating system, which can be generally non-deterministic in its response time (non-real-time). Once more, this method will not switch quickly sufficient to support Bluetooth SCO links, and will also have problems mitigating the disturbance from Bluetooth piconet master/slave polling activities.
While Bluetooth adaptive hopping definitely improves simultaneous performance under limited penetration scenarios, its widespread adoption will likely require intervention from regulatory organizations and standards bodies. Even under a fast-track program, this can be a process that is time-consuming. This time-delay exacerbates the issue that the strategy’s effectiveness is compromised with higher penetrations of WiFi systems and unmodified devices that are bluetooth. Adaptive hopping will likely be initiated as an optional Bluetooth profile, indicating that modified products will not utilize the functionality in piconets with unmodified devices. Further, within the presence in excess of one Bluetooth piconet or WiFi network, adaptive hopping could be counter effective to coexistence.
MAC-level switching is the utmost effective of the style that is modal/switching, and provides performance levels approaching those in no-interference scenarios. It is a technique that is collaborative by exchanging information between your two protocols at the MAC level and managing transmit/receive operations properly. Because MAC-level switching is conducted into the baseband, it is able to switch between protocols at a much faster rate than driver-level approaches. Consequently, it is able to mitigate many of the issues that driver-level switching cannot. MAC-level switching does not suffer from transmitting signals into incoming receptions, Bluetooth polling or operating system latency. Nonetheless, it is vunerable to interference that is adjacent-channel does suffer noticeable degradation. Also, because it is located in the baseband, it has a longer development cycle than driver-level approaches.
Simultaneous procedure offers the power to immediately identify all available wireless networks, select the ones needed and connect to them seamlessly. By providing coexistence in a highly integrated two-chip solution – an analog front-end chip and an electronic baseband chip – it allows simultaneous procedure associated with two protocols while eliminating disturbance and keeping reliability and performance. Interference is a concern that is genuine, as has been illustrated, there are measures that can be taken and innovative initiatives under development to provide coexistence particularly for collocated devices. The potential market is too large and too lucrative for every effort not to be made to ensure operation that is smooth.
BLUETOOTH vs. WLAN APPLICATIONS
Bluetooth and WLAN can be competing into the same frequency band but are they competing for the same applications? Due to its simplicity in not having to be configured, low power, short range and low cost Bluetooth will be focused on small devices such as PDAs and cell phones. To provide access and synchronization of those personal devices there will also be the need for Bluetooth radios to be integrated in access points and notebooks.
Another possibility that Bluetooth affords is the deconstruction of products into specific components, allowing for new kind factors and device kinds. As an example, insurance firms a separate headset there is no longer the need to include one in a cell phone, which simply becomes a cellular receiver/transmitter interacting with the cellular network, PDAs and laptops. More long-term, a so-called killer application for Bluetooth could well be public access. It’s all well to have synchronization between your notebook, PDA or cellular phone but, when in an airport or retail center, access to the Internet or information about the local area would be valuable. For that to happen, though, there is the chicken and egg situation where a ongoing company will not deploy Bluetooth enabled access points unless you will find significant variety of products available on the market to use them and vice versa. The same goes for the providers for the information that users will be seeking. Nevertheless, this is an certain area earnestly being develop ed.
Public access is a definite application for WLAN and, as has been mentioned, systems are already being globally deployed in airports. Their high data rate being comparable to the wired Ethernet makes them particularly suited to the enterprise sector for computer networking between PCs and to take advantage of the trend towards laptop computer mobility. Ease, low cost plus the facility for expansion also make WLAN suitable for small office home business office (SoHo) implementation and also the expansion of the property broadband access market, particularly in the united states, also starts up opportunities.
THE 5 GHZ FREQUENCY BAND
Whether or not simply a small fraction of these applications for Bluetooth and WLAN visited fruition, the narrow (80 GHz) 2.4 GHz musical organization will soon become congested. In anticipation of this, spectrum will play a crucial role in the deployment of next-generation, high speed WLANs and has prompted licensing authorities globally to allocate large blocks of license free spectrum in the 5 GHz band. A total of 455 MHz is available in the two blocks from 5.15 to 5.35 GHz and from 5.470 to 5.725 GHz as figure 7 shows, in Europe. Likewise, the US has allocated an overall total of 300 MHz in the two obstructs of range at 5.15 to 5.35 GHz and 5.725 to 5.825 GHz. In Japan, one 100 MHz block at 5.15 to 5.25 GHz has been considered.
Once again two different 5 GHz criteria are now being developed on either part for the Atlantic with both specifications providing information rates as high as 54 Mbps, and therefore well placed to deliver high speed communication services. Originating in the US the IEEE 802.11a standard was ratified in 1999. The physical layer (PHY) is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and shares a common MAC layer with all IEEE 802.11 standards 802.11b that is including.
Alternatively the European Telecommunications Standards institute (ETSI) is developing high performance radio LAN (HIPERLAN) standards included in its Broadband Radio Access system (BRAN) effort. Under its remit is the growth of four criteria — HIPERLAN1, HIPERLAN2, HIPERLink (designed for interior radio backbones) and HIPERAccess (intended for fixed Outdoor used to provide use of a wired infrastructure).
The HIPERLAN1 standard, which can be on the basis of the well-established manner of Gaussian shift that is minimum (GMSK) modulation, is complete and was ratified in 1997. HIPERLink and HIPERAccess, on the other hand, are at the early stages of development. It is HIPERLAN2 where activity that is current concentrated.
The physical levels of both 802.11a and HIPERLAN2 usage OFDM modulation to obtain high speed transmission rates. This multichannel spread spectrum modulation technique allows individual channels to maintain their distance (or orthogonality) to adjacent channels, enabling data symbols to be reliably extracted and multiple subchannels to overlap in the frequency domain for increased efficiency that is spectral. For instance, within the spectrum allocation for European countries, HIPERLAN2 stations is going to be spaced 20 MHz apart for a total of 19 stations.
Both IEEE 802.11a and HIPERLAN2 specify an OFDM physical layer that splits the information signal across 52 separate sub-carriers. 48 provide separate pathways that are wireless parallel data transfer, even though the staying four are employed as a reference to disregard frequency or period changes of this sign during transmission and supply synchronization. Synchronization enables coherent (in-phase) demodulation. The two standards may have this similarity but differ over the physical layer with 802.11a generally speaking seen as simpler and less complex, while HIPERLAN2 is mote sophisticated (or complicated according to your standpoint) with wider range.
HIPERLAN2
For HIPERLAN2, mobile terminals such as for example a laptop or handheld products keep in touch with access points. To provide continuous coverage, these access points must have overlapping coverage areas. Coverage typically extends 30 m indoors and 150 m in unobstructed environments. By utilizing automatic frequency allocation (AFA) access points monitor the HIPERLAN radio channels around them and automatically select an channel that is unused. A mobile terminal, after association, will only talk to one AP at each and every stage, but it can request to be connected to another if it receives a better signal strength. When a mobile terminal roams from the coverage area of one access point to another, it automatically initiates a handoff to the access point that is new. The APs taking part in the handover ensure that established connections over the fresh air interface as well as security associations are transparently shifted from the old to the new. Security support includes both negotiation that is key authentication (conventions such as the netw ork access identifier (NAI) and X.509 may be used), in addition to encryption utilizing Diverses or 3-DES.
OFDM modulation can supply transmission prices of 54 Mbps but this is dynamically modified to a lower rate by making use of different modulation schemes depending on the prevalent radio conditions. All traffic is transmitted on connections, bi-directional for unicast traffic and uni-directional towards the mobile terminals for broadcast and multicast traffic. This method makes support for quality of service (QoS), applied through time slots, straightforward. QoS parameters include bandwidth, bit mistake rate, latency and jitter. The request that is original a mobile terminal to send data uses specific time slots that are allocated for random access. The access point grants access by allocating specific time slots for a specific length in transport stations. The mobile terminal then sends data without interruption from other mobile terminals operating on that frequency. A control channel provides feedback to the sender, indicating whether data was received in error and whether it must be retransmitted. The QoS de livered depends on how the HIPERLAN2 network interoperates with the fixed network; for instance, if it’s via packet-based Ethernet, cell-based ATM or internet protocol address.
HIPERLAN2 operates as a seamless extension of other networks, so wired network nodes see HIPERLAN2 nodes as other network nodes. All networking that is common at layer 3 (internet protocol address and IPX, for example) will run over HIPERLAN2, allowing all common network-based applications to work, making the technology both community and application independent. Interoperation with Ethernet companies is supported right from the start, but extensions that are easy provide support for ATM, PPP, IP and UMTS. The standard has been specified with the objective that is clear of interoperability plus the industry consortium, HIPERLAN2 Global Forum (H2GF), aims to operate tests to confirm interoperability among products from user companies.
Probably the most application that is obvious HIPERLAN2 will be in the enterprise LAN environment but networks can also be deployed at ‘hot spot’ areas such as airports and hotels, supplying remote access and Internet services to business people. Its ability to act as an alternative access technology to 3G cellular networks is also a key application. The transmission of video streams in conjunction with datacom applications, HiperLAN2 has potential applications in the home by creating a wireless infrastructure for home devices (for connecting home PCs, VCRs, cameras and printers, for example) as the high throughput and QoS features of HIPERLAN2 support.
HIPERLAN2 almost appears too good to be true and price-to-market is a problem. For instance, the higher price of silicon for OFDM procedure could stall fairly priced implementation. At present, expenses stay reasonably high for 5 GHz OFDM systems, due mainly to the linearity that is high that it places on the power amplifier in the transmitter and the low noise amplifier in the receiver. Consequently, HIPERLAN2 products will likely cost more than lower speed alternatives. Also, some view the fact that HIPERLAN2 is sophisticated and able to support a wide range of applications not necessarily as a selling point but as overkill that comes at a high price.
IEEE 802.lla
In the other hand, IEEE 802.lla, because of its simplicity and maturity, represents lower costs and a faster time-to-market. However, although 802.1la and HIPERLAN2 have a near identical physical layer, they vary within the MAC layer. Inadequacies include integrated quality of service, guaranteeing performance in work surroundings and when home video that is streaming. Therefore, efforts to close the MAC gap are a priority. Moreover, whereas the IEEE 802.lla and HIPERLAN2 both meet US spectrum that is regulatory, HIPERLAN2 is truly the only 5 GHz WLAN that meets European interference avoidance restrictions. Conversely, HIPERLAN2 must limit the regularity range and power for the US to adhere to FCC rules.
The danger is obvious because of the possibility that the US and European countries will embrace two different standards. The consequence that the corporates’ inability to use one standard and benefit from lower acquisition and support costs could delay deployment of 5GHz LANs that is wireless somewhat. It really is a serious issue for global development because they are two incompatible WLAN standards. Thus, if 802.lla and HIPERLAN2 wireless terminals were operating in the area that is same there is disturbance, no coexistence with no interworking. Also, no roaming is possible if different access points were deployed in different areas that are public. The end user shall have to make a standards option plus the 5 GHz WLAN market is in danger of being fragmented if different industry players adopt different standards.
In order to avoid this several industry partners have begun a 5 GHz industry advisory group. In the HIPERLAN2 ETSI BRAN group and 802.lla Forum there are sub groups specifically taking a look at what is required to arrive at one standard. At the moment, there was work that is much be done.
SUMMARY
The short range wireless data networking headlines have been dominated by Bluetooth, resulting in unreasonably high expectations over the last few years. What tends to be forgotten is that, in relation to the development of similar technologies, Bluetooth is still embryonic. It is also a victim of its own potential. Articles on the subject wax lyrical about the possibility of consumer appliances being Bluetooth-enabled to have the capacity to ‘talk’ to each other and the merits of so-called ‘hidden computing’ applications. These will allow synchronization of laptops, PDAs and phones that are mobile automatically update calendars, appointments and email whenever within range. Envisaged commercial applications range from the wireless monitoring of transported goods and chemical processes.
However, most of the applications that are early essentially cable replacement or connection substitutes primarily aimed at the cell phone and FDA markets. The industry needs to walk it should be, and to a great extent is, concentrating on steady development and addressing ways of ensuring interoperability, standardization and coexistence issues before it can run so. Bluetooth has its origins in European countries featuring its initial development focused in Scandinavia, and even though its truly a technology that is global that is where its early deployment will be greatest. Bluetooth has attracted all the players that are key investment is considerable as well as perhaps a few of the hype is justified.
The IEEE 802.llb (WiFi) WLAN standard has been developed steadily without any razzmatazz on the other side of the coin and the Atlantic, but in the same 2.4 GHz unlicensed frequency band. Its high data rate, together with the falling costs of PC cards, allied to the mobility and flexibility it offers has seen market growth that is significant. It is in a position to take advantage of the increase in the usage of laptop computers and development in house broadband access. Globally, 802.1lb systems are making inroads in ‘hot spot’ applications at airports, meeting facilities and accommodations, and WiFi items are hitting the market. Once more, issues of interoperability, coexistence and standardization are being addressed. However, although the establishment of a registered test house in Europe will assist acceptance, official certification has to become more extensive.
Utilizing the inevitability that the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band becomes congested, the development associated with the 5 GHz musical organization for next generation high speed WLANs is vital. However, the possibility of fragmentation, with separate standards being adopted in the US and Europe is a real threat to international development and could wait implementation somewhat. A standards war will benefit nobody, perhaps undermining self-confidence and making manufacturers cautious about significant investment.
Going wireless has come with some strings connected but quick range wireless systems have a term future that is long. Its ability to satisfy the industry’s desire for seamless connectivity will ensure continued market growth and development.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Mcdougal want to thank the following individuals and companies for their aid in compiling this health supplement:
* Mobilian Corporation, www.mobilian.com
* Vincent Vermeer, business development manager — Wireless Connectivity Division, 3COM (Europe), www.3com.com
* Dr Jamshid Khun Jush, chairman of ETSI BRAN and specialist that is senior LANs at Ericsson, www.ericsson.com
* Martin Johnsson, chairman HIPERLAN2 Global Forum and WLAN item supervisor at Ericsson, www.ericsson.com/wlan
* Peter Bates, VP company development, www.bluesocket.com
* Andy Craigen, senior manager, Wireless Terminals Applications, Agere Systems
* Bob Heile, chairman IEEE 802.15 Working Group
* The organizers and speakers at the Wireless LAN conference in London in April 2001. Organized by EF-Telecoms, www.ef-international.co.uk
* Frost & Sullivan, www.frost.com
* Figure 2 and Figure 3 are taken with permission from presentations available on www.ieee802.org/15/ EUROPEAN 3G SPECTRUM AT [greater than]$700 M PER MHz COST $B GERMANY 47.5 UK 32.9 ITALY 11.4 FRANCE 9.3 Note: Table produced from club graph
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cordless headphones are not uncommon. Today, you can find dozens of true wireless soundpeats wireless earbuds models on industry, and they’re usually inexpensive and affordable. One of the newest models, nonetheless, seems to be even cheaper than the sleep. The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones have an amount of a measly $35.99, that is pretty impressive for a pair of headphones that could have been revolutionary if launched five years ago.

But what are the compromises made to get these headphones to such an level that is inexpensive? Are they worth buying, or should you look elsewhere? We put the SoundPeats TrueFree headphones towards the test to learn.

Design
The SoundPeats TrueFree true wireless headphones look decent, but they’re a boring that is little. Both the earbuds and the charging case feature an all-black color-scheme, with the SoundPeats logo design featuring for each piece.

The earbuds aren’t extremely big, that is nice to see — and will likely play into comfort level a little later. They’re not as small as some true wireless headphones we’ve seen, but they’re still pretty little.

On each earbud, you’ll find a key, aided by the buttons getting used to control playback, volume, an such like. Pressing the buttons requires that is pushing of — but as a result of the keeping of the buttons you’ll also be pushing the earbuds deeper into your ears, which may be a little uncomfortable.

The charging case charges through a MicroUSB cable. We wish SoundPeats would have used a connector that is USB-C but didn’t expect that considering the budget range. Also within the box, you’ll find three extra pairs of ear guidelines, and it’s worth trying out them to find the right size.

The headphones generally look good, but they’re a little boring — and there are many quirks to think about.

Comfort
Due to the fact that the headphones are relatively small and light, we actually found that they were pretty comfortable during use. Any in-ear headphones are planning to possess some level of disquiet, but we discovered that these headphones generally avoided convenience problems that other real wireless headphones run into.

The headphones had been also actually very good at residing in the ears. These headphones simply aren’t designed for activities or running, therefore for that, don’t be surprised when they fall out if you use them. That said, during normal usage, they ought to stay static in your ears decently well.

Noise
Eventually, quality of sound could be the area that many cheap headphones compromise on — but fortunately, the SoundPeats TrueFree headphones really don’t sound all that bad for the price. Yes, they’re not headphones that are audiophile-grade but they’re perhaps not terrible either.

Let’s begin with the bass, that is reasonably deep and powerful offered the headphones’ price and size range. Kick drums are able to punch through a mix decently well, despite the known undeniable fact that the bass expansion isn’t all that great.

The mid range, it’s not a dealbreaker as you might expect, is a little all over the place, but. Low mids are decently warm, but they’re overshadowed a bit by the boosted high mids, which can sound a little shrill at times.

The highs sound fine, but they’re perhaps not nearly since current as we might have liked. Music is decently detailed for this budget range, but it’s far from ideal.

Performance
The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones hook up to your device that is listening through 5.0, so we found that these people were pretty good at retaining that connection. We never really ran into any skips or jumps during playback, and had no trouble initially pairing the headphones.

The battery life regarding the headphones sits in at 3.5 hours, that isn’t great. That said, the charging situation can get you an overall total of 15 hours of use, therefore if you don’t think you’ll be using the headphones for more than a few hours at a time, then the 3.5-hour battery life of the individual buds should be enough for most.

Conclusions
The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones aren’t perfect, but for the cost they really have a lot to provide. The style could be a boring that is little nonetheless they certainly don’t sound bad. They’re also pretty comfortable, and sound good offered their price.

But will they be the option that is best in their price range? Well, so far, we think they’re pretty close. If you can spend an extra $15, then the JLab Audio JBuds are a little better, but if $50 is a little much, then these are an excellent option.

Given their excellent value for money, we’re awarding the SoundPeats TrueFree headphones the Headphone Review Bronze Medal.

cordless soundpeats wireless earbuds are no longer uncommon. Today, you will find a large number of real wireless headphones models on the marketplace, and they’re frequently inexpensive and affordable. One of the latest models, nonetheless, seems to be even cheaper compared to the rest. The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones have a cost of a measly $35.99, which can be pretty impressive for a set of headphones that will are revolutionary if launched five years ago.

But do you know the compromises designed to get these headphones to such an inexpensive level? Are they worth buying, or should you look elsewhere? The SoundPeats is put by us TrueFree headphones towards the test to discover.

Design
The SoundPeats TrueFree true cordless headphones look decent, but they’re a boring that is little. Both the earbuds and the case that is charging an all-black color-scheme, aided by the SoundPeats logo featuring on each piece.

The earbuds aren’t overly big, which will be nice to see— and will play into comfort likely level a little later. They’re not as small as some true wireless headphones we’ve seen, but they’re still pretty small.

On each earbud, you’ll find a button, aided by the buttons used to manage playback, volume, and so forth. Pushing the buttons calls for pushing — of course — but because of the placement of the buttons you’ll be pushing the earbuds deeper into your ears, which can be only a little uncomfortable.

The case that is charging through a MicroUSB cable. We wish SoundPeats would have used a USB-C connector, but didn’t expect that considering the cost range. Also within the box, you’ll find three additional pairs of ear guidelines, and it’s worth tinkering with them to find the size that is right.

The headphones generally look good, but they’re a little boring — and there are a few quirks to think about.

Comfort
Because of the known fact that the headphones are relatively small and light, we actually found that they were pretty comfortable during use. Any in-ear headphones are planning to involve some level of disquiet, but we found that these headphones generally avoided comfort issues that other true cordless headphones encounter.

The headphones were additionally really very good at residing in the ears. These headphones simply aren’t designed for activities or running, therefore for that, don’t be surprised when they fall out if you use them. That said, during normal usage, they should stay in your ears decently well.

Noise
Finally, quality of sound could be the area that many low priced headphones compromise on — but thankfully, the SoundPeats TrueFree headphones actually don’t sound all that bad for the purchase price. Yes, they’re perhaps not headphones that are audiophile-grade but they’re not terrible either.

Let’s begin with the bass, that is relatively deep and powerful offered the headphones’ size and price range. Kick drums are able to punch through a mix decently well, despite the known proven fact that the bass expansion isn’t all that great.

The mid range, it’s not a dealbreaker as you might expect, is a little all over the place, but. Low mids are decently warm, but they’re overshadowed a bit by the boosted high mids, which can sound a little shrill at times.

The highs sound fine, but they’re perhaps not nearly as current as we would have liked. Music is decently detailed for this price range, however it’s far from ideal.

Efficiency
The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones hook up to your device that is listening through 5.0, and now we unearthed that they certainly were decent at retaining that connection. We never truly went into any skips or jumps during playback, and had no trouble initially pairing the headphones.

The battery life on the headphones sits in at 3.5 hours, that isn’t great. That said, the asking situation are certain to get you an overall total of 15 hours of continual use, so then the 3.5-hour battery life of the individual buds should be enough for most if you don’t think you’ll be using the headphones for more than a few hours at a time.

Conclusions
The SoundPeats TrueFree headphones aren’t perfect, but also for the price they actually have actually a ton to supply. The design could be a boring that is little nevertheless they certainly don’t sound bad. They’re also pretty comfortable, and sound good given their price.

But will they be the best option in their price range? Well, so far, we think they’re pretty close. Then the JLab Audio JBuds are a little better, but if $50 is a little much, then these are an excellent option if you can spend an extra $15.

Provided their value that is excellent for, we’re awarding the SoundPeats TrueFree headphones the Headphone Review Bronze Medal.

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